Top 6 Impregnable Passes in Ancient China

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About the Ranking
Although an impregnable pass cannot guarantee the victory of a war, it plays an important role. In ancient time when lots of wars happened, the pass will become a place of strategic importance. The following 6 are the famous impregnable passes in ancient China.
  • Located on the northeast part of Qinhuangdao City of Hebei Province, Shanhai Pass is the starting pass of the Great Wall built by great General Xuda in 1381 of Ming Dynasty. It is adjacent to Yanshan Mountain and Bohai Sea, so it was called Shanhai Pass (Mountain and Sea Pass). It is reputed as the first pass of China due to its key location.
  • Situated on the Gouzhu Mountain of Shanxi Province, it was called Yanmen Pass (goose door pass) for the reason that it is between two peaks like a door and there often have geese flying through it. The mountains around it are very precipitous and the roads are all rugged, so it was an important pass in Song Dynasty. Yanmen, Ningwu and Pian Passed were called three passes, being in the charge of important town of Taiyuan and had placed key strategic positions.
  • Located in northeast of Lintong County of Shaanxi Province, Tong Pass is an essential pass between ancient Luoyang and Chang-an. It is adjacent to Yellow River to the north and Huashan Mountain to the south, not only a pass to the central Shaanxi Plain but also a natural barrier in the east of Chang-an. What’s more, it was in charge of the important Yellow River’s port---Fenglingdu Port between Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces.
  • Xiangyang is Xiangfan City of Hubei Province now, located in the middle reaches of Han River. It is a hinge area connecting Hubei, Henan, Sichuan and Shaanxi Provinces. During the period of Three Kingdoms, three military blocs had fought for it for several times. During Song Dynasty, Song garrisoned troops here for 10 years so that the Yuan Army could not defend Song dynasty.
  • Called Pengcheng City in ancient time, it was an important town in eastern part of central plain of China, located in northwest of Jiangsu Province, adjacent to Henan, Shandong and Anhui Provinces. It was a place of strategic importance due to its special location of Huanghai to the east, Lunan Mountain to the north and Jianghuai River to the south. According to some historical materials, since period of Spring and Autumn and Warring States, there were more than 150 wars here.
  • It is now located on the boundary of Sichuan, Shaanxi and Hubei Provinces. During the period of Three Kingdoms, Shu Nation occupied Hanzhong and it was a natural safeguard for attacking Wei Nation and defending the whole Sichuan Province. Between two peaks built a lot of plank roads. Therefore, it was easy to hold but hard to attack.

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